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What is generic Zithromax?
Generic Zithromax is a prescription antibiotic used for the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible to azithromycin microorganisms. This medication is a generic form meaning that it contains the same active ingredient as brand drug namely Azithromycin. Generic Zithromax may differ from brand in shape, color of the tablets and amount of excipients. Therapeutic activity is similar. Generic medication is made by well known drug manufacturer Cipla.
How does the medication work?
Azithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic which possesses a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The medication is active against a wide range of microorganisms including gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The medication exerts bacteriostatic action through the inhibiting the synthesis of protein in bacterial cell. Azithromycin binds to 50S subunits of the ribosomes and inhibits the enzyme called peptidyl translocase at the stage of translation and interferes with the biosynthesis of protein. Azithromycin slows the growth and replication of bacteria.
The broad spectrum of antibacterial activity includes:
Gram-positive microorganisms: Streptococcus group C, F, G, including producing beta-lactamase, Streptococcus viridians, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp.
Gram negative microorganisms: Gardnerella vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Campylobacter jejuni, Haemophilus ducrei, Bordetella pertussis, Bordetella parapertussis, Legionella pneumophila.
Anaerobic microorganisms: Peptostreptococcus spp, Bacteroides bivius, Clostridium perfringens Peptococcus.
Intracellular microorganisms: Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia pneumoniae), ureoplasma (Ureaplasma urealyticum), spirochete (Treponema pallidum, Borrelia burgdorferi), bacteroids, mycoplasma (Mycoplasma pneumoniae), mycobacteria (Mycobacteria avium complex).
Azithromycin is active against Helicobacter pylori. Generic Zithromax is not active against gram-positive bacteria which are resistant to erythromycin.
Generic Zithromax possesses a therapeutic effects more frequently than beta-lactam antibiotics in cases when it is impossible to indentify the infectious agent. Due to its good tolerability and high effectiveness azithromcycin is a drug of choice in the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, urogenital infections, mixed infections.
Clinical studies have shown that the clinical efficacy of azithromycin is achieved at a single daily dose 500mg 3 times daily and is comparable to the effectiveness of other antibacterial drugs. This in its turn allows significantly reduce the duration of antibacterial therapy.
Generic Zithromax possesses the following pharmacokinetic characteristics:
· It is rapidly absorbed from the blood plasma into the tissues and cells of the macroorganisms;
· It penetrates phagocytic cells and is transported along witg them to the inflammatory focus;
· It creates a high and sustained therapeutic concentrations in infected tissues, which remains active for 5-7 days after stopping the treatment;
· It provides the long half-life period constituting 34-68 hours;
· It provides post-antibiotic effect
· It provides a one-time daily intake and high compliance of therapy.
After oral administration, azithromycin is well absorbed into the blood circulation and rapidly distributed in the body. It is stable in acid medium, lipophilic. After a single dose of 500 mg the bioavailability is 37% (effect of "first passage"), Cmax (0,4 mg /l) is achieved after 2-3 hours, the volume of distribution - 31,1 l/kg and protein binding is inversely proportional to the concentration in the blood and is 7-50%. Food intake can significantly change the pharmacokinetics (depending on dosage form). Due to its long high-life period the medication is slowly eliminates out of the organisms and therapeutic concentrations of the medication remains high for a period of 5-7 days after the last application. Generic Zithromax is easily penetrates through the blood barriers and inters the tissues. The concentration of the medication in lungs, respiratory system, urogenital system, skin and soft tissue is higher than its concentration in blood plasma. Azithromycin penetrates through the cell membranes (is effective for infections caused by intracellular pathogens). Then it is transported along with phagocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages to the site of infection, where is released in the presence of bacteria. The concentration of Azithromycin at the place of infection is 23-24% higher than in healthy tissues. Generic Zithromax is metabolized in the liver and eliminates with bile and urine generally in unchanged form.
When generic Zithromax is indicated?
Generic Zithromax (Azithromycin) is licensed to treat infectious diseases caused by susceptive (sensitive) to the medication bacteria:
Infections of the upper respiratory tract and ENT (ear, nose and throat infections) such as bacterial pharyngitis / tonsillitis, sore throat, laryngitis, sinusitis, otitis media);
• Lower respiratory tract infections (bacterial bronchitis, exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, alveolar interstitial pneumonia, atypical pneumonia).
• Infections of the skin and soft tissue: chronic migratory erythema (the initial stage of Lyme disease, Lyme disease), erysipelas, impetigo, secondary pyoderma, scarlet fever.
• Infections of the urogenital system, including sexually transmitted infections (urogenital chlamydia, gonorrhea, chancroid, ureamycoplasma, bacterial prostatitis, gonorrheal urethritis and cervicitis).
• Stomach and duodenum ulcers associated with Helicobacter pylori.
· Azithromycin can be indicated for primary syphilis
· Azithromycin is able to induce eradication of U.urealyticum of the men's urinary tract
The medication is not indicated for the treatment of viral infections such as common cold, flu .
How the medication is taken?
You should take the medications exactly as prescribed by your physician. You should finish the entire course of treatment even if you start feeling much better. This will help to avoid the development of secondary infections. Tablets should be taken with a glass of water swallowing as a whole. Tablets should not be crashed or chewed. It is preferably to take Azithromycin tablets at the same time every day. In certain cases your health care provider may decide to make some tests to determine if the bacteria are sensitive to Azithromycin. For the treatment of mild and moderate infections your physician may prescribe this medicine without prior examinations.
Azithromycin tablets should be taken one hour before meal and 2 hours after meals.
The indicated dose of generic Zithromax depends on the following conditions:
· Severity of the infection
· Health conditions you are currently treating
· Functional conditions of the liver and kidney
· Concomitant diseases
The recommended dose for patients with liver or kidney diseases should be reduced.
When the medication should not be used?
Generic Zithromax is contraindicated for patients with severe liver and kidney dysfunction, known reactions of hypersensitivity to any of the drug ingredients, allergic reactions to macrolide antibiotics.
Generic Zithromax is contraindicated in pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers. Azithromycin is a pregnancy category B meaning that is was not studied in pregnant women. When the medication was studied in laboratory animals it didn't cause any damage to the fetus.
Generic Zithromax side effects
Azithromycin represents one of the safest macrolide antibiotic. Numerous clinical studies have shown good tolerability of azithromycin in patients of all age groups. In most cases Generic Zithromax side effects are mild or moderate and do not require the cessation of therapy. The medication may cause the following side effects:
· Digestive system: nausea, vomiting, flatulence, diarrhea, abdominal pain, transient increase in liver enzymes; cholestatic jaundice.
· Allergic reactions: skin rash, angioedema, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis.
· Dermatological reactions: reactions of photosensitivity.
· Central nervous system: dizziness, headache, drowsiness, weakness.
· Hemopoietic system: leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia.
· Cardiovascular system: chest pain
· Urogenital system: vaginitis, candidiasis, nephritis,
· Other: hyperglycemia, arthralgia.
How the medication can interact with other medicines?
· Antacids may lower the concentration of azithromycin. It is recommended to follow 2 hours between use of arithromycin and antacids.
· Blood thinners also called anticoagulants (warfarin). Concomitant use may increase the risk of bleedings
· Cardiac glycosides (digoxin). Generic Zithromax may increase the risk of digoxin toxicity
· Tacrolimus. Azithromycin may increase the blood levels of Tacrolimus
· Cyclosporine. Zithromax may increase the levels of cyclosporine in your blood
· Phenytoin. Azithromycin tablets may increase the blood levels of phenytoin
· Triazolam. Generic Zithromax may increase the blood concentration of Triazolam
· Azithromycin may increase the toxicity of ergot preparations
· Carbamazepine. Azithromycin tablets may increase the blood levels of Carbamazepine
· Lincosamide antibiotics may make the drug less effective
· Chloramphenicol may enhance the effects of azithromycin
How the medication should be stored?
You should store the medication at dry and protected from light place out of reach of children. Do not keep the medicine in a bathroom.
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Which is the manufacturer of generic Zithromax?
The medication is manufactured by Cipla